Industrial architecture

Peñafiel. Valladolid

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Protos winery

Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners con Alonso Balaguer y Arquitectos Asociados

Description Technical file

The new Protos facility consists of a winery and a representative social and administrative headquarters. The building, which features a critical set of optimal spatial and environmental conditions for wine-making, is representative for the brand and integrates into the surroundings of Peñafiel while presenting solutions that minimise the energy consumption necessary for maintaining said conditions. Energy saving is not only important but inherent to the design. It rests on a triangular plinth. Five interconnected parabolic vaults supported by large arches in laminated wood and joined together by fine stainless steel props, are clad in large-format pieces of terracotta to create a lightweight and articulated structure. The construction of the new building, which distances itself from the traditional shape, is situated at the foothills of the castle and seeks to respond to the landscape found in this area.
Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners and Alonso Balaguer Arquitectos Asociados won the commission to design the facilities for a new winery with the capacity to process a million kilos of grapes for Bodegas Protos, a pioneering company in wine-making in the Ribera del Duero region. The new building, which represents a contemporary reinterpretation of the traditional winery construction, is situated in Peñafiel, a town near Valladolid, in the community of Castile and Leon.
The winery is in the foothills of an escarpment crowned by a medieval castle. On the slope it boasts an underground area with over two kilometres of tunnels and galleries in which the wine is aged.
The new building is joined by means of a tunnel, built below the separation road, to the existing wine-making installations and consists of a subterranean cellar that keeps a constant temperature of 14-16 degrees centigrade for the storing of casks, maturing wines and the final bottled product.
The wine-making area, which is situated above the cellar, is partially buried and has been designed to accommodate the fermentation and storage vats as well as the bottling plant, packing equipment, several technical areas and platforms that can be accessed by all types of vehicles.
The wine-making plants and cellar also house the administrative and social facilities, the wine-tasting areas and a small auditorium for presentations and commercial events, with a seating capacity for four hundred people. The design also includes a semi-buried garden with panoramic views of the castle up above and through which the natural light penetrates into the office area.
The main access level for employees and visitors also includes grape unloading bays and a space from which visitors can view the wine-making plant situated a level below.
In terms of architectural composition, the base of the building is buried to make the most of thermal inertia and to situate the wine-making and maturing areas, with the traditional winery construction interpreted in a contemporary key. Anchored on the land, this base regularises the topography, creating support for the lightweight shell that rests on it. This roof is formed by a structure of parabolic arches in laminated wood, reinterpreting the construction of the winery in the shape of a nave. Its consideration as a facade, propitiated by the view it affords of the Castle of Peñafiel, is a fundamental part of the work’s architectural composition.
The building stands on a triangular plinth that occupies the entire plot. The five interlinked parabolic vaults that rest on large arches of laminated wood have been clad in large-format ceramic pieces to create a lightweight articulated structure. Thismodular shape breaks up the global volume and scale of the building, creating a structure in keeping with the adjacent buildings and surrounding landscape. The five vaults, each one eighteen metres wide, are connected by means of steel pieces to each other and to the concrete base structure. Resting on these wooden pieces, which are placed on V-shaped steel supports, are the wooden beams and tensors that separate the arches of the parabolic vaults. The roof is composed of secondary and tertiary beams and a finish of multilayer panels and insulation material. The facades and internal divisions, formed through the use of glass and steel, serve to reinforce the structure and facilitate the visual connection and flow of air between the different facilities.
Sustainability strategy. Sustainability has been a key consideration in the design of the Protos winery. The main objective of this agro-industrial building was to provide the necessary rigorous environmental conditions for both the processing of the grapes and for the making and maturing of the wine. The building also had to house an area for administrative functions as well as spaces dedicated to events and visitor exhibitions. From the point of view of design, the principal objective was to create a contemporary winery with a low environmental impact, similar to the traditional wineries found in the region.
The continental climate and the tradition of underground wineries. The Ribera de Duero region enjoys a typically continental climate, that is, cold winters and hot summers. There are also large differences between daytime and night-time temperatures.
The wine-making process, particularly the maturing phase, requires a calm environment at a constant temperature, which is in contradiction with the region’s climate. This problem has been resolved over the centuries by building subterranean wineries in which the mass of the ground enveloping the cellars serves to insulate them from sudden outdoor temperature changes and provides protection during the hot summers and cold winters.
A modern reinterpretation of the region’s wineries. The design of the new winery has reinterpreted the use of the ground mass as a regulator of temperature, a basic postulate of the region’s typical architecture. The reinterpretation has consisted of using contemporary techniques in structural shapes and constructional solutions.
Each stage of the wine-making process requires slightly different temperatures and levels of humidity. The production area where the grape processing and fermentation takes place needs a temperature of between 18 and 24ºC, though no humidity control. In contrast to the cellar, the wine maturing area requires a temperature of between 14 and 16ºC. In addition, the cask area requires high humidity, while in the bottling area the humidity level is low.
Facade and materials. The solar studies undertaken during the initial phase of the project have influenced the design of the winery in different ways. The large roof overhangs on the south side protect the levels above ground from the very strong summer sun, as the glazing of the areas protected from solar radiation allows natural light into the building without letting the heat in directly.
The semi-buried courtyard of the intermediate floor also contributes to the entry of natural light in the lower areas, for example the offices and spaces dedicated to wine tasting. In total, almost 60% of the building (including the upper level dedicated to production, the administrative zones and the exhibition spaces) enjoys natural light. In the spaces where it was impossible to use natural light, an exhaustive zoning of the lighting has been undertaken. Owing to the nature of the building, a low level of lighting is generally required, which can be achieved through two ways: a low-consumption one and another one used in specific cases that has a slightly higher level of intensity.
For the roof a construction system has been used that boasts a high level of insulation. The structure and shape are in timber, while the external cladding is made from large pieces of ceramic. The external skin is in contact with the roof only on the fixing fillets, so that in fact this forms a ventilated roof similar to a rain screen. The result is an enormous reduction in the penetration of solar heat, as a large part of the heat accumulated in the external skin of the roof is dissipated by the air that moves through the cavity of the roof instead of being distributed around the roof or inside the building. According to the studies undertaken, this system reduces the interior load and reduces the external temperature of the roof by a minimum of two degrees centigrade, thus generating annual energy savings of 10%.
When it came to selecting the materials and construction systems, a special study was made of the materials and energy resources that would have to be used during the construction and life of the building, as well as their elimination in order to reduce the building’s environmental impact to a minimum.
The fact that the concrete structure is prefabricated implies a rational use of the water and other materials on site.
A construction system was conceived whereby the parts were gradually assembled on to a stable, skeleton-like structure during the intermediate phases of the construction. Thus no scaffolding or auxiliary elements were necessary. The same principles were applied to the timber structure of the roof, a material estimated to have twenty times less energy inside it than steel. Both the timber and the concrete structures were prefabricated in the centre or north of Spain, and so the transport of the finished parts to the site contributed to a large extent to the reduction in waste during construction.
The external walls are formed from large blocks of limestone taken from a quarry situated just a few kilometres from the site, the same quarry that provided the original stone for the medieval castle of Peñafiel.

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Localización: Bodegas Protos, 24-28. Peñafiel, Valladolid. Autores: Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners, arquitectos, en asociación con Alonso Balaguer y Arquitectos Asociados. Project Managers: CEM Management. Colaboradores: Tècnics G3, control presupuestario, Agroindus (ingeniería instalaciones, estructuras y control presupuestario), y José María Garrido, aparejador. Ingeniería de estructuras: BOMA. Control presupuestario: BDSP Partnership. Ingeniería instalaciones: Grupo JG. Ingeniería estructuras: ARUP. Iluminación: Biosca & Botey. Constructora: Fomento de Construcciones y Contratas. Promotor: Protos Bodega Ribera de Duero de Peñafiel. Fotografía: Wenzel.
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